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Linux FTP配置文件说明

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更多 发布于:2016-03-20 23:05
一.vsftpd说明:


LINUX下实现FTP服务的软件很多,最常见的有vsftpd,Wu-ftpd和Proftp等.Red Hat Enterprise Linux中默认安装的是vsftpd.


  访问FTP服务器时需要经过验证,只有经过了FTP服务器的相关验证,用户才能访问和传输文件.vsftpd提供了3种ftp登录形式:


   (1)anonymous(匿名帐号)


使用anonymous是应用广泛的一种FTP服务器.如果用户在FTP服务器上没有帐号,那么用户可以以anonymous为用户名,以自己的电子邮件地址为密码进行登录.当匿名用户登录FTP服务器后,其登录目录为匿名FTP服务器的根目录/var/ftp.为了减轻FTP服务器的负载,一般情况下,应关闭匿名帐号的上传功能.


  (2)real(真实帐号)


real也称为本地帐号,就是以真实的用户名和密码进行登录,但前提条件是用户在FTP服务器上拥有自己的帐号.用真实帐号登录后,其登录的目录为用户自己的目录,该目录在系统建立帐号时系统就自动创建.


  (3)guest(虚拟帐号)


如果用户在FTP服务器上拥有帐号,但此帐号只能用于文件传输服务,那么该帐号就是guest,guest是真实帐号的一种形式,它们的不同之处在于,geust登录FTP服务器后,不能访问除宿主目录以外的内容.


 


二.FTP相关配置文件说明


其相关配置文件有/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf,  /etc/vsftpd.ftpusers,  /etc/vsftpd.user_list,在配置FTP服务器时,主要是修改这些文件中的相关语句.


1.vsftpd.conf文件说明


# Example config file /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf


#


# The default compiled in settings are fairly paranoid. This sample file


# loosens things up a bit, to make the ftp daemon more usable.


# Please see vsftpd.conf.5 for all compiled in defaults.


#


# READ THIS: This example file is NOT an exhaustive list of vsftpd options.


# Please read the vsftpd.conf.5 manual page to get a full idea of vsftpd's


# capabilities.


#


# Allow anonymous FTP? (Beware - allowed by default if you comment this out).


anonymous_enable=YES  //是否允许anonymous登录FTP服务器,默认是允许的.


#


# Uncomment this to allow local users to log in.


local_enable=YES //是否允许本地用户登录FTP服务器,默认是允许


#


# Uncomment this to enable any form of FTP write command.


write_enable=YES  //是否允许用户具有在FTP服务器文件中执行写的权限,默认是允许


#


# Default umask for local users is 077. You may wish to change this to 022,


# if your users expect that (022 is used by most other ftpd's)


local_umask=022 //设置本地用户的文件生成掩码为022,默认是077


#


# Uncomment this to allow the anonymous FTP user to upload files. This only


# has an effect if the above global write enable is activated. Also, you will


# obviously need to create a directory writable by the FTP user.


#anon_upload_enable=YES


#


# Uncomment this if you want the anonymous FTP user to be able to create


# new directories.


#anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES  //是否允许匿名账户在FTP服务器中创建目录


#


# Activate directory messages - messages given to remote users when they


# go into a certain directory.


dirmessage_enable=YES //激活目录信息,当远程用户更改目录时,将出现提示信息


#


# Activate logging of uploads/downloads.


xferlog_enable=YES  //启用上传和下载日志功能


#


# Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 (ftp-data).


connect_from_port_20=YES   //启用FTP数据端口的连接请求


#


# If you want, you can arrange for uploaded anonymous files to be owned by


# a different user. Note! Using "root" for uploaded files is not


# recommended!


#chown_uploads=YES


#chown_username=whoever


#


# You may override where the log file goes if you like. The default is shown


# below.


#xferlog_file=/var/log/vsftpd.log  //设置日志文件的文件名和存储路径,这是默认的


#


# If you want, you can have your log file in standard ftpd xferlog format


xferlog_std_format=YES//是否使用标准的ftpd xferlog日志文件格式


#


# You may change the default value for timing out an idle session.


#idle_session_timeout=600  //设置空闲的用户会话中断时间,默认是10分钟


#


# You may change the default value for timing out a data connection.


#data_connection_timeout=120//设置数据连接超时时间,默认是120秒.


#


# It is recommended that you define on your system a unique user which the


# ftp server can use as a totally isolated and unprivileged user.


#nopriv_user=ftpsecure


#


# Enable this and the server will recognise asynchronous ABOR requests. Not


# recommended for security (the code is non-trivial). Not enabling it,


# however, may confuse older FTP clients.


#async_abor_enable=YES


#


# By default the server will pretend to allow ASCII mode but in fact ignore


# the request. Turn on the below options to have the server actually do ASCII


# mangling on files when in ASCII mode.


# Beware that turning on ascii_download_enable enables malicious remote parties


# to consume your I/O resources, by issuing the command "SIZE /big/file" in


# ASCII mode.


# These ASCII options are split into upload and download because you may wish


# to enable ASCII uploads (to prevent uploaded scripts etc. from breaking),


# without the DoS risk of SIZE and ASCII downloads. ASCII mangling should be


# on the client anyway..


#ascii_upload_enable=YES


#ascii_download_enable=YES //是否允许使用ASCII格式来上传和下载文件


#


# You may fully customise the login banner string:


#ftpd_banner=Welcome to blah FTP service.//在FTP服务器中设置欢迎登录的信息.


#


# You may specify a file of disallowed anonymous e-mail addresses. Apparently


# useful for combatting certain DoS attacks.


#deny_email_enable=YES


# (default follows)


#banned_email_file=/etc/vsftpd.banned_emails


#


# You may specify an explicit list of local users to chroot() to their home


# directory. If chroot_local_user is YES, then this list becomes a list of


# users to NOT chroot().


#chroot_list_enable=YES //如果希望用户登录后不能切换到自己目录以外的其它目录,需要设置该项,如果设置chroot_list_enable=YES,那么只允许/etc/vsftpd.chroot_list中列出的用户具有该功能.如果希望所有的本地用户都执行者chroot,可以增加一行:chroot_local_user=YES


# (default follows)


#chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd.chroot_list


#


# You may activate the "-R" option to the builtin ls. This is disabled by


# default to avoid remote users being able to cause excessive I/O on large


# sites. However, some broken FTP clients such as "ncftp" and "mirror" assume


# the presence of the "-R" option, so there is a strong case for enabling it.


#ls_recurse_enable=YES


pam_service_name=vsftpd  //设置PAM认证服务的配置文件名称,该文件存放在/etc/pam.d/目录下.


userlist_enable=YES //用户列表中的用户是否允许登录FTP服务器,默认是不允许


#enable for standalone mode


listen=YES  //使vsftpd 处于独立启动模式


tcp_wrappers=YES  //使用tcp_wrqppers作为主机访问控制方式


2.vsftpd.ftpusers文件说明


这个文件是用来记录"不允许"登录到FTP服务器的用户,通常是一些系统默认的用户.


下面是该文件中默认的不允许登录的名单:


# Users that are not allowed to login via ftp


root //默认情况下,root和它以下的用户是不允许登录FTP服务器的.可以将不允许登录的用户添加到这里来.但切记每个用户都要单独占用一行.


bin


daemon


adm


lp


sync


shutdown


halt


mail


news


uucp


operator


games


nobody


3.vsftpd.user_list文件说明


其实它的内容跟上面那个文件内容一样,只是在系统对文件vsftpd.conf 进行检测时,会检测到"userlist_deny=YES",因此这个文件必须存在.下面是这个文件的内容.


# vsftpd userlist


# If userlist_deny=NO, only allow users in this file


# If userlist_deny=YES (default), never allow users in this file, and


# do not even prompt for a password.


# Note that the default vsftpd pam config also checks /etc/vsftpd.ftpusers


# for users that are denied.


root


bin


daemon


adm


lp


sync


shutdown


halt


mail


news


uucp


operator


games


nobody

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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